The Nordic Catholic spirituality has its roots in the three sources of Scandinavian Christianity: first, the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon stream brought by the missionaries from the British Isles in the tradition of St. Sunniva; secondly, the Roman-Carolingian stream brought by St. Ansgar and his disciples; thirdly the Byzantine-Slavonic stream due to the Normans’ close links with the Kievan Rus’. This is also reflected in our Old Catholic liturgy, which incorporates some elements of Gallican and Byzantine origin into its classical Roman layout.

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